On February 26, 1999, the United States
issued its "1998 Human Rights Report." Posing as a
"human rights judge" once again, it attacked the
human rights records of more than 190 countries and regions.
Ignoring the actual situation, the report
blamed China for committing "widespread and well
documented human rights abuses," but did not say a
single word about the human rights problems in the United
In fact, the U.S., which often grades
human rights records of other countries, won low marks from
its own people and the international community.
A U.S. human rights organization called
"Peter D. Hart Research Associates" indicated in
its survey released on December 10, 1997 that 63 percent of
those surveyed believe that poor people in the U.S. are
usually discriminated against.
added that over half of the surveyed in the U.S. believe
that the disabled, the elderly, and the native Americans are
routinely discriminated against; 41 percent believe that
black Americans are often discriminated against, while 70
percent of the blacks themselves believe that they felt
A director of the
organization Human Rights U.S.A. said at a press conference
that "the survey shows we have human rights problems
right here in the United States."
October 1998, Amnesty International issued a 150-page human
rights report on the U.S.. It cited a host of facts
revealing that the U.S. has a "persistent and
widespread pattern of human rights violations," while
considering itself in the position of being in the
"international leadership in the field of human
Directed against the U.S.,
Amnesty International launched a campaign saying that human
rights are not just the affairs of foreign countries, and
urged the U.S. to "mind its own business."
I .The Threat to Life, Freedom, and Personal
The United States is a country where
violent crimes are most serious in the world. On average, 65
people die and more than 6,000 people become disabled by
violent crimes every day.
information released in November 1997 by the Bureau of
Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice, in
1996, 12.4 cases of violent crimes were reported among every
1,000 people at and above the age of 12.
Statistics indicate that between 1991 and June
1996, 9,859 people in New York City fell victims to murder
attempts. During the same period, one out of every 10 people
in the U.S. working in the catering trade was murdered every
The juvenile crime rate has risen 600
percent since the 1960s, and murder cases involving
juveniles under 17 years old tripled between 1984 and 1994.
According to a survey on juvenile violent
criminal cases in the 26 most developed countries, released
in February 1997 by the U.S. Center for Disease Control and
Prevention, the juvenile crime rate in the U.S. is much
higher than in the other developed countries.
The number of murder cases by juveniles in the
U.S. almost accounted for three-fourths of all juvenile
murder cases in those 26 most developed countries.
The U.S. also witnesses several thousand cases
of criminal explosions every year. Between 1991 and 1995,
14,200 such cases of explosions were reported, claiming the
lives of 456 people, injuring 3,839, and resulting in
property losses of 1.l61 billion U.S. dollars.
The United States has more firearms in the
hands of individuals than any other country in the world. A
report released by the U.S. Department of Justice on May
5,1997 indicates that the country has nearly 200 million
private firearms, and two thirds of all U.S. households have
Though it is legal to bear arms in the
United States, private firearms now seriously endanger the
lives and personal safety of Americans.
Statistics indicate that the U.S. has on
average one million criminal shooting incidents and more
than 20,000 shooting deaths a year, with a similar number of
people committing suicide with guns.
international survey released by the U.S. Administration
departments in April 1998 indicates that the death toll from
shootings in murders, suicides and accidents in the U.S.
ranks number one among the world's 36 richest countries.
Between 1985 and 1995, the U.S. juvenile crime
rate tripled and the number of murders involving guns
With the widespread use of private
firearms, gun-related incidents are now endangering security
in the schools.
On March 24, 1998, two
middle-school students in the state of Arkansas, one 11 and
the other 13, took 10 rifles and pistols and killed four
girl students and a female teacher and wounded another 11
students and teachers within 30 seconds in a schoolyard.
On May 21, a high school student aged at 15 in
the state of Oregon shot his parents to death before rushing
to his school and madly shooting at more than 400 fellow
students, killing two and wounding 19 others.
Since the second half of 1997, U.S. school
campuses have experienced over a dozen such incidents,
shocking people all over the country.
the U.S. administration claims that the number of violent
crimes has been reduced in recent years, an investigation
indicates that 61 percent of Americans believe that the
crime problem has become more and more serious, and 68
percent expected a higher crime rate in the year of 2000,
according to an article in Time magazine's January 20, 1997
A recent poll conducted jointly by the
Washington Post and the American Broadcasting Corporation
shows that many of those surveyed expressed concern over
crime and did not believe the latest government figures
claiming that crime rates have declined.
United States calls itself the "Free World". The
proportion of prisoners in the United States, however, tops
A report issued by the U.S.
Department of Justice on August 17, 1997, says that the
number of people who committed crimes and received sentences
in the United States in 1996 hit a record 5.5 million.
According to a report issued by the Bureau of
Justice Statistics on January 22, 1998, the number of people
serving prison terms in the United States increased to more
than 1.7 million by June 30, 1997 from 740,000 in 1985. This
figure more than doubled in 12 years, with an average annual
increase of 8.1 percent.
The German magazine
Der Spiegel pointed out in an article on December 14, 1998
that the number of prisoners in the United States had
reached 1.8 million people, the highest number in history.
Jail is also used to confine those suffering
mental disorders, and some 200,000 mental patients are now
imprisoned in the United States.
To meet the
demand of the increasing number of prisoners, the country
has had to build many more jails.
a 1997 report issued by the U.S. Department of Justice, the
United States built 220 new jails between 1990 and 1996 to
accommodate a 43 percent increase in the prisoner
The number of beds in the jails in
18 states increased dramatically to 74,000 at present from
2,620 in 1986.
In spite of this, the increased
number of jails lags far behind that of the prisoners.
Jails in the United States are in poor
condition and prisoners are ill-treated there.
Many juveniles are placed in the same jails as
adult prisoners, but children seeking protection are
sometimes put in jails different from their parents. By the
end of June 1998, some 3,500 juvenile offenders were jailed
together with adult prisoners.
very prevalent in U.S. jails. Prisoners are maltreated not
only by fellow prisoners, but also by prison guards.
The United States ranks first in the use of
high technology for the purpose of suppression. Stun guns
and electro-shock stun belts are used against prisoners by
the Bureau of Prisons and Marshals Service in more than 100
counties and at least 16 states.
police offices use chemicals such as oleoresin capsicum
spray , which has killed more than 60 people since 1996.
The United States started to use higher jails
in 1994 and conducted extremely harsh control measures
against prisoners, who were denied almost all personal
contacts with others and were put under a solitary
confinement around the clock
The Ellis No.1
Jail in Texas is a place for those who are sentenced to
death and about to be executed. Prisoners are kept in
separate rooms only three-square-meters large. Unbearable
high temperatures in the jail can reach 40 degrees Celsius
with humidity as high as 98 percent.
rampant in U.S. jails. A report issued by the U.S. Federal
Disease Control and Prevention Center indicates that 5.2 out
of every 1,000 prisoners suffer from AIDS, a proportion six
times greater than that of the rest of the population.
The United States also arbitrarily enforces
the death penalty without justice, and jury verdicts are
often affected by race and economic status.
The United States is one of only six remaining
countries in the world that imposes the death penalty on
juveniles, with 25 states violating the International Human
Rights Convention and maintaining the death penalty for
Four states prescribe 17 years old as
the minimum age for the death penalty, while 21 other states
define the age as 16 or have no lower limit.
The number of minors sentenced to death in the
United States exceeds any other country. Since 1990, eight
teenagers who committed crimes when they were under 18 years
old have been executed, and 60 other juveniles are now
In the past decade, the
United States executed 30 people suffering mental disorders,
including a murderer in Texas with the mental capacity of a
Moreover, the United States
ignores its international obligations and denies the rights
of arrested foreigners to obtain assistance from their
embassies and consulates.
Some 60 foreign
citizens have been sentenced to death in the United States,
and most of them have not been informed of their rights
under the Vienna Convention.
is a serious problem in the United States. Human Rights
Watch issued a 440-page investigative report on July 7,
1998, describing police behavior in 14 cities. The report
cited brutality as one of the most serious, enduring and
divisive human rights violations in the United States.
An investigative report released by the U.S.
Department of Justice indicates that a total of 125
civilians died of maltreatment at the hands of police
officers between 1980 and 1995, with only one police
officers punished for related crimes.
500,000 people in the U.S suffered from abusive police
treatment in various forms, including physical blows,
assaults, or threats with police dogs and guns in 1996.
According to a report in the June 1997 issue
of U.S.-based " Insight" weekly, compensation paid
to victims subjected to illegal behavior on the part of New
York police officers increased to 24 million U.S. dollars
monthly in 1994.
The monthly compensation
figure of seven million U.S. dollars in 1988 surged
three-fold in only six years.
In addition, a
large number of cases involving police brutality have by no
means been dealt with .
II. Dollar Democracy
The U.S. boasts of being the world's model of
democracy in spite of low voter turn-out for elections.
According to a report in the August 26, 1997 issue of
Singapore's Unite Morning News, a leading daily of the
country, an increasing number of voters are losing their
enthusiasm for participating in elections to fulfill their
basic political obligation as U.S. citizens.
The 1996 voter turn-out in the U.S. was only
48 percent, with the figure dropping below 50 percent for
the first time since 1924.When considering both the
presidential and mid-term elections, the participation of
eligible voters in the U.S. was the lowest among all the
This continuing decline
in turn-out, the longest and worst in the history of the
United States, has influenced people of all classes, ages,
income levels and races. The turn-out of voters between
18-24 years of age dropped from 42 percent in 1972 to less
than 30 percent in the last presidential election, and only
16 percent in the 1994 election.
for voters with annual incomes of less than 15,000 U.S.
dollars dropped 20 percent between 1990 and 1994, with the
participation for mid-term elections falling to less than 10
The disparity between black and white
U.S. voters was five percent in 1984, and the figure rose
even further to more than 10 percent in 1994.
Controlling state power has always been the
privilege of a small number of wealthy U.S. citizens. Based
on the annual personal asset reports of members of the
current Clinton cabinet, approximately half of the cabinet
members have personal assets of over one million U.S.
dollars, with some reporting family assets of over 80
According to a 1997 report in
USA Today, the average personal assets of 25 judicial
candidates suggested by U.S. President Bill Clinton was 1.8
million U.S. dollars, with the list including 15
Statistics compiled by a
Washington-based organization show that 34.1 percent of
judges in the United States are millionaires .
Even in the Congress, the proportion of
millionaires to the total number of legislators is dozens of
times higher than the level for U.S. society as a whole.
The United States always glorifies its freedom
of press. However, freedom of press in the U.S. is nothing
more than a myth. A research report compiled by the
Sociology Department at Sonoma State University, California,
showed that the U.S. press is controlled by boards of
directors for major multinational companies which are either
owners or shareholders of the country's most powerful TV
stations and newspapers.
The 11 most powerful
print and electronic media giants in the U.S. all have
connections with 144 of the 1,000 largest enterprises. In
addition, each major enterprise maintains close relations
with heads of at least two of most powerful media giants.
Eighty-one managers of the six largest members of the
electronic media hold important positions with 104 major
enterprises, with 76 general managers of the five largest
print media giants which publish 160 dailies maintaining
close connections with 66 of the 1,000 largest enterprises.
U.S. enterprises and press media giants are
controlled by wealthy individuals. Journalists often
maintain their jobs, salaries and promotion opportunities by
catering to the values and viewpoints their general managers
and the wealthy hold concerning international political and
In their most recent
research report, researchers from Sonoma State University
point out that the U.S. government wants American citizens
to believe that members of the press media are
"independent organizations". However, according to
report, they are in fact "hostages" of the values
and economic benefits of their owners and sponsors .
Another survey conducted by the American
Society of Newspaper Editors in 1998 revealed that most
Americans harbor suspicions concerning the so-called free
press system. Seventy-eight percent of the public pointed to
the overly biased viewpoints of the press, while 80 percent
indicated that newspapers dramatize some news items for
commercial purposes, with over 75 percent citing suspicions
that some news lacks credible sources .
Troubled With Poverty
The U.S., the world's
wealthiest country, has recorded steady economic growth for
eight years running. Nonetheless, the country is still
troubled by poverty, hunger and homelessness due to the
serious polarization of wealth distribution.
The gap between the rich and the poor
continues to widen as the bulk of the country's wealth flows
into the wallets of the rich.
Post carried an article on March 1, 1998, saying that the
richest one percent of the U.S. population possesses more
wealth than the total wealth of 90 percent of the total
The bottom 25 percent of U.S.
families witnessed a nine percent decline in income between
1979 and 1995, with the richest 25 percent of families
enjoying a 26 percent increase during the period, according
to a U.S.A. Today report in 1997.
for the richest five percent of families was 5.7 times that
for bottom 20 percent of families in 1995.
report released by the U.S. Census Bureau in October 1997
noted that the richest American families had enjoyed a 46
percent increase in income since 1967, with the level for
the poorest rising by only 14 percent.
Official statistics released in 1997 show that
the top 20 percent of U.S. families shared 49 percent of the
country's total income in 1996, with the income level for
the bottom 20 percent families falling by 1.8 percent.
Although the U.S. leads the world in terms of
average family income, the income gap between the rich and
poor has nonetheless reached the greatest point in the past
two decades. Increased work hours have, in fact, been
accompanied by falling incomes.
surveys show that the average work week for an American
jumped from 40.6 hours in 1973 to 50.6 hours in 1995.
The current income level for the top 20
percent of the population is nine times more than the figure
for the bottom 20 percent, up significantly from the 3.5
times figure in 1979. In addition, some 75 percent of
American workers earn less today than in 1979.
Speaking from the perspective of income
distribution, an economist from the University of California
in Berkeley said the U.S. faces greater problems than it did
30 years ago.
The increasingly serious
polarization in terms of the distribution of wealth has led
to a growing poverty rate. Statistics show that 16 percent
of the U.S. population lived below the poverty line in 1974,
with the figure rising to 19 percent in 1997.
A quarter of those U.S. citizens who are over
the age of 25 and have not received a high school education
are living below the poverty line.
greatly affected the health and education of the poor. A
report released by the U.S. National Center for Health
Statistics in July 1998 said the possibility of illness the
poor face is seven times that for the rich. In addition, the
expected life-span of a 45-year-old with an annual income of
25,000 U.S. dollars is 6.6 years longer than that for an
individual with an annual income of 10,000 dollars.
Information released by the U.S. General
Accounting Office shows that tuition levels for four-year
public universities soared by 256 percent during 1980-1995
period, while the income level for ordinary families grew by
only 93 percent. This in turn resulted in a further decline
in the rate of poor people receiving higher education.
Hunger accompanies poverty. A large number of
Americans continue to suffer from hunger in spite of the
fact that the U.S. ranks as one of the world's leading grain
producers with annual production of over 160 million tons.
The over 30 million U.S. citizens suffering
from hunger in 1990 accounted for 12 percent of the nation's
A report released by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture on September 15, 1997, said
financial factors forced 4.2 million American families to
reduce spending on food between 1994 and 1995, with some 12
million families threatened with inadequate food support.
The leader of an anti-hunger organization said
the hunger rate in the U.S. has surged by 50 percent over
the past decade.
In addition, the number of
homeless people is also on the rise. A recent survey
conducted in 29 U.S. cities showed that six of every 10
cities have witnessed increasing numbers of homeless people.
The survey results released at the American Conference of
Mayors in 1997 showed that New York alone had 45,000
Statistics released by the
country's association of low income lodgers show that
workers at the lowest income levels have to work 60 hours a
week in order to afford ordinary housing if 30 percent of
total income goes for housing according to federal
standards. Workers in New York and Hawaii, on the other
hand, must work 119 and 144 hours respectively.
Recent estimates indicated that at least a
third of homeless people in the U.S. suffer from depressive
psychosis and schizophrenia.
continues to reduce welfare expenditures in spite of ongoing
The number of U.S. citizens
receiving welfare benefits fell seven percent during the
first six months after the country's new welfare bill went
into effect in 1996.
The number of welfare
recipients fell 22 percent from 14.4 million in March 1994
to 11.2 million in March 1997, according to a June 1997
report in U.S.A. Today.
Almost all states
reduced welfare benefits to families with minor children
during the 1993-1996 period. Four states reduced benefits by
more than 40 percent, with the Wisconsin reduction standing
at 55 percent. An additional 27 states cut relief payments
by 20-39 percent.
The U.S. is the only
industrialized large country which has not as yet adopted a
compulsory medical insurance system. Reports from the U.S.
Census Bureau indicate that 41.7 million Americans lack
medical insurance coverage.
IV. An Abyss of
scandals have constantly been exposed in the United States
in recent years. In 1997, The American news media revealed
that the U.S. Department of Health authorized the Tuskegee
Medical Research Center to use free medical treatment and
food as enticements to recruit 600 black patients from
Alabama for secret projects carried out in 1932-1972 to
study the effects of syphilis on the human body.
Patients participating in the experiments over
the 40-year period were never told the truth and never
received appropriate medical treatment. The U.S. government
eventually terminated the projects amidst a major scandal
which surfaced in 1972. By that time, however, at least 28
people had died from syphilis, and more than 100 patients
suffered from complications related to the disease. In
addition, the wives of more than 40 patients and 19 of their
infant children were infected with syphilis.
In spite of repeated class action filed
against the U.S. government, the surviving victims were
forced to wait until 1997, some 65 years after the beginning
of the experiments, to receive a government apology. The
U.S. government, in fact, admitted that the experiments were
a shameful incident of "racial discrimination".
Another historical scandal surfaced in the
U.S. in March of 1998 when the State of Mississippi made
public some 124,000 pages of secret documents from the
archives of the state's former Sovereignty Committee. The
documents revealed that the Committee, which operated from
1956-1977, spent some 250,000 U.S. dollars annually to
maintain a racial segregation system and had resorted to
intimidation, illegal imprisonment, bribing juries and
various other illegal means to thwart the efforts of civil
rights activists. The Committee, which counterparts in other
states viewed as a prototype for safeguarding the racial
discrimination system at any cost, was disbanded in 1977 and
the State decided toseal the archives for 50 years. The
general public finally won access to the archives following
a 21-year marathon lawsuit.
Black people in
the United States do not as yet enjoy equal rights in terms
of participating in government affairs. A study report
released in January 1997 by a Washington-based criminal
verdict research center showed that 1.46 black men out of
the total 10.4 million eligible black voters had been
deprived of their right to vote after being convicted of
felonies. This means that one of every seven eligible black
voters loses the right to vote after receiving severe court
Statistics for 1998 provided by
the Human Rights Watch indicated that U.S. adults stripped
of the right to vote account for some two percent of the
country's total, and nevertheless, the number of blacks
deprived of the right to vote accounted for 13 percent of
One-third of the blacks in Alabama
and Florida were deprived of their right to vote in the 1996
elections. Human Rights Watch predicts that some 30 to 40
percent of the next generation of black people in the U.S.
will permanently lose their right to vote if the current
situation remains unchanged.
The Voting Rights
Act enacted in 1965 authorized the Department of Justice to
monitor elections in various southern states and required
certain states to designate as many as possible
constituencies where black voters account for a majority.
Nonetheless, the actual situation proves the contrary. Some
states have resorted to redistricting the constituencies to
restrict the black people's participation in government
For example, the local government in
Jackson city of Mississippi, responded to the threat that
blacks would soon become the city's majority population by
redistricting constituencies to divide and diminish their
power by moving them to districts with a majority of white
people. The city has resorted to similar action on several
occasions since 1960.
Black people account for
27 percent of total eligible voters in the State of Georgia.
In 1997, however, the redistricting of 11 constituencies
left black voters with the majority in only one
constituency. The Supreme Court issued a June 19 ruling that
the state acted in compliance with the U.S. Constitution.
Not a single black person has been elected to
the school board in Bossier Parish, Louisiana, in spite of
the fact that blacks account for 20 percent of the local
population. In 1997, the local branch of the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
suggested redistricting in order to establish two
constituencies with black majorities. The local government's
rejection of the suggestion won the backing of the Supreme
Court which on May 12 issued a favorable verdict by a 7:2
Racial discrimination has had an impact
on every aspect of social life in the United States. Results
of the most recent census show a disparity in the economic
status of blacks, with the average net property value of
black families standing a only a tenth of the level for
white families. An USA Today article published in April 1997
noted that the income level for Afro-American families
stands at only 63 percent of the level for white families.
Moreover, an article in the September 3, 1997,
issue of the Wall Street Journal said the income level for a
black person is 19percent lower than that for a white person
with the same education level. It also noted that the
proportion of poverty-stricken black families is 15
percentage points higher than for poor white families, with
the total number of the former more doubling the figure for
While blacks account for 10.1
percent of the total U.S. work force very few of them have
access to fields such as medicine, law, journalism and
engineering. Even when assuming equal conditions, a black
person has only a 33 percent chance of getting a job
compared to his or her white counterpart.
Apart from rendering unfair rulings in cases
involving equal rights for different races, the U.S. Supreme
Court also neglected racial representation when hiring
employees. According to a USA Today report in March 1998,
the nine Supreme Court justices employ 394 clerks, with
Hispanics accounting for one percent, black some two percent
and Asian-Americans 4.5 percent of the total. Not a single
native American Indian has been employed.
Statistics for 1998 revealed that in the U.S.
states, where the death penalty is in force, among a total
of 1,838 prosecutors having the right to recommend the death
sentences, whites accounted for the bulk of prosecutors,
with only 22 blacks and 22 Hispanics included in the total.
Blacks account for 12 percent of the total
American population. However, blacks account for 54.2
percent of prison inmates and more than 40 percent of
convicted criminals subject to capital punishment. A black
person faces a nine times greater chance of receiving a
death sentence than a white person convicted for the same
crime. While blacks and whites have accounted for almost the
same proportion of murder victims in the United States since
1997, some 82 percent of people executed were convicted of
murdering white persons .
The January 30,
1997, issue of the Washington Post reported the number of
blacks sentenced into prison in 1998 was 6.88 times the
number for whites. However, the figure has since surged to
A news dispatch released by the
Agency France Presse (AFP) on August 26, 1997, said that one
of every three blacks in the U.S. was either a criminal
suspect or otherwise wanted by the police. In the first four
months of 1997, some 24,000 young black Washington residents
between the ages of 18 and 25 were either serving jail terms
or were wanted by local authorities, accounting for 49.8
percent of the total residents of the same age group, which
is some 48,800 in the city, up some eight percentage points
on the figure of 42 percent five years ago.
The education conditions of ethnic groups in
the United States are in a state of crisis.
According to the American Council on Education
on May 19, 1997, the annual growth rate of university
enrollment among ethnic groups in 1995 was 2.9 percent,
compared to 7.1 in 1993 and 4.6 percent in 1994. Among
African Americans in 1995 the rate was only 1.7 percent more
than in 1994. University enrollment among Caucasian high
school graduates has gone from 32 percent in 1975 to 43
percent in 1995 while there has been almost no increase
among ethnic groups. In 1995, university enrollment among
black Americans aged 18 to 24 was just above 35 percent,
three percent more than in 1975; and the rate among Hispanic
American high school graduates was also 35 percent, the same
as in 1975.
According to a report in the
February 3, 1998 edition of USA Today, a fifth of Hispanic
Americans aged 16 to 24 dropped out of high school. If those
of the same age group who did not go to school are counted,
altogether 30 percent of the young Hispanic Americans do not
get high school education. In the past 25 years, the
drop-out rate among Hispanic Americans has ranged from 30 to
35 percent, or three times the average in the United States
and 3.5 times that of Caucasians. Meanwhile, the rate among
non-Hispanic Americans of school age has decreased steadily.
According to the American Council on
Education's 1995 report, fewer than 60 percent of Hispanic
Americans aged 18 to 24 had finished high school education
or had an equivalent education; the rate among black
Americans was only 77 percent, but among Caucasians it was
In 1996, the state of California
passed Proposition 209 and a court in Texas upheld a similar
law that did away with the decades old preferential
treatment for members of ethnic groups in enrolling in
graduate schools. This led to a sharp decline in the number
of students from ethnic groups at the country's two biggest
and most famous public universities in 1997.
In the autumn of 1997, enrollments of black
Americans and Hispanic Americans in the University of
California and the University of Texas' law school were down
80 percent from the previous year, resulting in the smallest
number of enrollments since 1970.
also an obvious racial barrier in the United States in
health care, where the death rate among black American
infants is more than twice that among Caucasians. The
incidence of heart disease among black Americans is about
three times that among Caucasians, and rate of deaths from
cancer among black Americans and Hispanic Americans is
higher than that among Caucasians. Conditions are similar
among American Indians and some Asian-Americans. Life
expectancy of black American men and women is 5.4 years and
7.5 years less than that of Caucasians respectively.
In recent years, racial discrimination has
grown in the United States along with incidents of racial
violence. According to a report of the Southern Poverty Law
Center on March 3, 1998, the number of organizations
promoting racial discrimination increased 20 percent in 1997
from the previous year and there are now 474 such
organizations in the country.
According to a
report on June 8, 1997 of the National Church Arson Task
Force, from January 1995 to May 1997, there were 162 black
American churches burned down, with the majority of acts of
arson committed by Caucasians.
There were 160
out of 199 suspected arsonists questioned in 150 arson cases
who were Caucasians. According to a 1997 report from the
National Asian-Pacific American Consortium, in 1996 there
were 534 acts of violence committed against Asian-Americans,
an increase of 17 percent over 1995, and 90 percent of those
that were criminal cases were racially motivated.
The U.S. is a nation of immigrants, but in
recent years, moves to restrict immigration have been on the
rise. The Welfare Reform Law, which was approved by the U.S.
Congress and the Immigration Law enacted on April 1, 1997,
reduced and did away subsidies for immigrants and had many
clauses discriminating against illegal immigrants and
causing many difficulties for immigrants.
United States began repatriating illegal immigrants in large
numbers, in many cases infringing on the rights of
immigrants. According to the Mexican Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, in 1996, Mexican consulates in the United States
received more than 80,000 appeals for help from Mexican
immigrants. In September1997, a group of 56 Guatemalan
immigrants were shackled and handcuffed by the U.S.
Immigration and Naturalization Service for return to
A report on teenagers said that
thousands of Mexicans enter the United States every year as
illegal immigrants, and a considerable number of them are
teenagers. From 1993 to 1996, some 62,000 Mexican children
were taken by the U.S. authorities to the border between
Mexico and the United States with no protection of basic
V. Rights and Interests of Women and
Children Not Guaranteed
There is still serious
gender discrimination in the United States and the U.S.
Constitution does not contain any provision for equality
between men and women.
Females make up 50.94
percent of the country's population, but only 10.4 percent
of the members of Congress are females, according to
There is also gender discrimination
in the workplace and females account for two-thirds of the
country's jobless. The underemployment rate among women is
almost two times the average in the U.S., and re-employment
among them is much lower than for men.
females are employed in the service sector on a temporary or
part-time basis. Females do not get equal pay for equal
work, resulting in an widening gap between the incomes of
men and women.
A Bureau of Labor Statistics
study showed that mid-level wages of full-time female
employees were 75 percent those of males. There are fewer
women doing high-tech work than men, and their incomes are
much lower, according to the January 23, 1997 issue of USA
Today. Salaries of female mathematicians, physicists, and
engineers with higher degrees are only 17 percent those of
males, and in the computer industry they are only 14 percent
those of males.